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G o o d   M o r n i n g !
Monday, October 17, 2005

The purpose of the Detail is to help keep you informed of the current state of affairs in the latent print community, to provide an avenue to circulate original fingerprint-related articles, and to announce important events as they happen in our field.
Breaking NEWz you can UzE...
compiled by Jon Stimac

Australian State Police Eye Fingerprint Biometrics   COMPUTERWORLD - Oct 15, 2005 ...agencies are set to introduce portable, handheld fingerprint scanners by the end of 2006...

It’s A Print! MEDFORD MAIL TRIBUNE, OR - Oct 12, 2005 ...banks are using fingerprint biometrics, which verify people’s identities...

State Senator to Introduce New Fingerprint Bill BURLINGTON HAWK EYE, IA - Oct 11, 2005 ...finger–scanning equipment that now sits idle could soon be used again...

New Technology Helps Local Police Identify Suspects   HERKIMER EVENING TELEGRAM, NY - Oct 10, 2005 ...prior to this new technology, police had to ink a suspects hands...

Recent CLPEX Posting Activity
Last Week's Board topics containing new posts

Fingerprints - residual lenght of time
BuckeyeGary Sun Oct 16, 2005 2:41 pm

IAI Certification Test
Guest Sun Oct 16, 2005 12:58 am

Evid. Admisibility Hearing
Paul R Sun Oct 16, 2005 12:00 am

Shirley McKie update
Iain McKie Fri Oct 14, 2005 1:30 pm

lasik surgery
Mark Mills Thu Oct 13, 2005 11:58 pm

Need Help Answering Question
BuckeyeGary Thu Oct 13, 2005 8:17 pm

Photographing Firearms
Jessica Thu Oct 13, 2005 8:13 pm

[ Poll ] VOTE: for your favorite NON-ACRONYM term
Kasey Wertheim Thu Oct 13, 2005 5:57 pm

Physical Developer Formulation
Guest Thu Oct 13, 2005 4:54 pm

Major Case Prints DRAFT Card
Lloyd Paul Brannon Thu Oct 13, 2005 2:14 pm

JOB POSTING-Minnesota Bureau of Criminal Apprehension
Patrick Warrick Tue Oct 11, 2005 3:30 pm

[Poll ] VOTE: Is consideration of the acronym important or not?
Kasey Wertheim Tue Oct 11, 2005 1:17 pm

2 Ninhydrin questions
Julie Mon Oct 10, 2005 10:57 pm

Latents from latex gloves
Sara Rafferty Mon Oct 10, 2005 6:03 pm

Processing of leather
Jrgass Mon Oct 10, 2005 5:55 pm

New term for "Major Case" Prints
Kasey Wertheim Mon Oct 10, 2005 12:36 pm

Job Posting: Latent / Tenprint / Face / Iris / U.S. Govt
KaseyWertheim Mon Oct 10, 2005 12:09 pm



Updated the Subscription page.  Due to a large number of Topica customer complaints of spam sign-ups, Topica has disabled the e-mail based subscription capability.  From now on, to sign up for the Detail, members have to visit a web-based subscription form, enter their e-mail address, retrieve a confirmation e-mail sent to that address from Topica, and click on the link in that e-mail in order to be "confirmed".  The subscription page resides on the CLPEX website at: (  If you have tried to subscribe recently without results, please give this web-based subscription form a try, and I hope to see you subscribed soon!

Added Ivan Futrell's "Fingerprint Comparison and Identification Course" to the Training page of  There are two upcoming courses, so check out the objectives of this new class.

Lockheed Martin is hiring experienced Ten-Print and Latent Print Examiners to support critical real-time customer missions.  Cross-training in iris and face ID will be encouraged.  Salary is very competitive with bonuses for shift-work.  Additional details can be found on the message board or by replying to the Detail e-mail.  To view Lockheed's public job announcement, visit and search for "Research Scientist" positions in WV, or for requisition numbers 606291,
606733 and 606294.


Last week

we looked at the message board discussion on the topic of "major case" prints and voted on whether to leave "MCPs" alone, and which acronym and non-acronym term you preferred to be passed on to SWGFAST for consideration.

This week

we look at the results of voting and we look at the IAI update by Joe Polski.
CLPEX discussion results on the term "Major Case" prints and alternative phrases

During the week of October 10-16, 2005, the concept of changing from the term "Major Case Prints" (MCP's) to another term, as well as which terms to adopt were voted on at the message board.  Below are the results of voting, in the form of a letter to SWGFAST:

SWGFAST members,

After much discussion on the message board followed by a week to vote on the topic, the members of the website have voted.

The split was almost equal regarding whether to change terms or stay with Major Case Prints. (47% - 52%)

Most felt that if a new term were to be implemented, that they would not necessarily choose a term based solely on the fact that it had a catchy acronym. (69% - 30%)

The clear winner in terms of phrases WITH an acronym was Complete Palmar Exemplars (COMPLEX) card. (30%)

There was more diversity when voting on non-acronym terms, with the two favorites being Complete Friction Ridge Exemplars (CFRE’s) and Full Case Prints (FCP’s)  Two additional e-mail votes were received for CFRE’s and one additional e-mail vote for FCP’s. (33% - 33%)

For additional details or to view the 50+ posts on this topic, visit and click on the “message board” link on the left column.

I hope this helps us narrow the scope of our recommendation to NIST.


-Kasey Wertheim

Joe Polski recently distributed the IAI Update containing the following items of interest to Detail readers:

2006 IAI Membership Directory

We are in the process of assembling the 2006 Directory so please take a minute to review your information as presented in the 2005 directory and let us know as soon as possible of any changes.  All data will be sent to the printer around the middle of November so changes reported after that time will not be reflected in the 2006 Directory.  Thanks for your assistance.

NIJ Fast Capture Grant Awards

The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) has finished evaluating applications from bidders to develop prototype applications for a fast capture type of livescan.  This technology would be extremely useful in processing many people in a short period of time, say for example, processing through immigration checkpoints at airports etc.  Thanks to Peter Komarinski, Chair of the IAI’s AFIS Committee and to Chris Miles from NIJ for this information.

The requirements for that project are as follows:

Fast Capture of Rolled-Equivalent Fingerprints and Palm Prints

4 new awards at NIJ


• Requirements represent a major step forward in finger and palm print capture technology:

• Capture of 10 rolled-equivalent fingerprints in 15 seconds or less;

• Capture of both palms in1 minute and less;

• Meets or exceeds FBI & NIST specifications;

• Reduces failure-to-enroll rates;

• Produces a working device suitable for independent test in 18 months; and is

• Affordable, rugged, portable, relatively unobtrusive in size, and deployable

in the near future.

Awards were made to:

Cross Match (Formerly Smith’s Detection Inc.)

Flexible polymer plastic 2-dimensional sensor array on a polymer foil base substrate. The Polymer foil is thin and elastic and can be applied to any 1- dimensional curved surface designed for optimum capture geometry of a non-rolled finger or palm.

A proof-of-concept 64 by 64-pixel sensor has already been developed and tested. The ASIC readout will have to be designed and produced.

Point of Contact: Jack Carver (USA)/Uwe Richter (Germany)


TBS North America Inc.

Patent pending ‘Segment ImagingTM’ system is based on touchless, optoelectronics technology using customized hardware and software components. Software system includes algorithms for hardware calibration and for real-time image quality control.

Development goals include enrolling cooperative subjects with no or minimal operator involvement, support for non-cooperative enrollment, and capture of all 10 rolled equivalent prints within a 15 second time frame, and within 5 seconds for subsequent enrollments.

Point of Contact: Bill Long


Carnegie Mellon University

Proposed system constructs a visual 3-dimensional model of both hands, including palms, fingerprints, fingertips, and sides of the fingers.

Associated algorithms:

• Overlay images from multiple cameras on a complete 3-D model of both hands using active models to normalize for pose;

• Extract ridge detail based on contrast assessment under varying illumination effects; and,

• Translate 3-D images to standardized formats.

Based on DARPA autonomous computing modules. Segmentation algorithm based on Face Recognition PIE datasets.

Point of Contact: Latanya Sweeney


 University of Kentucky (Funded Directly by DHS)

A calibration pattern will be positioned inside the box, such that the cameras can automatically calibrate themselves prior to each scan eliminating the need for operator assistance. A structured light illumination system will acquire a 3-D surface scan of a hand. Once the hand’s pose is determined, a flash-style projection source will project a single structured-light pattern onto the hand with the component cameras each acquiring a high-resolution, digital photograph.

A rolled-equivalent print will be established by morphing the 3-D skin model to a 2-D surface mimicking the process of rolling an inked finger.

Because the proposed system will use commodity cameras, the hardware involved will be low cost with future iterations being compact and easily portable.

Point of Contact: Lawrence Hasselbrook

Forensic Science Communications

The October 2005 issue of Forensic Science Communications has been posted to the FBI Internet site.  The issue can be viewed at

Research and Technology
  Validation of a Forensic Method for Analog VHS Video Recorder Identification
Dean Catoggio, Bryson Shearwood, and Jason Ferridge
  Managing Intellectual Capital
W. Mark Dale and Wendy S. Becker
Standards and Guidelines
  Best Practices for Forensic Image Analysis
Scientific Working Group on Imaging Technology (SWGIT)
Short Communications
  Accreditation Mentoring Program
Timothy D. Kupferschmid
  FBI Laboratory Specialized Training Program
Anja Einseln

Note especially the link titled FBI Laboratory Specialized Training Program which goes to a page listing many upcoming courses being offered by the FBI Laboratory Division.  For more information please contact:

Anja Einseln
Training Officer
Federal Bureau of Investigation
Quality Assurance and Training Unit
E-mail at:

Crime Scene Certification  

The Board of Directors recently approved a request by the Crime Scene Certification Board to change the titles of the certificants of that program as follows:

Old title:  Crime Scene Technician (CST);  New title:  Certified Crime Scene Investigator (CCSI)

Old title:  Crime Scene Analyst (CSA);  New title:  Certified Crime Scene Analyst (CCSA)

Old title:  Senior Crime Scene Analyst (SCSA);  New title:  Certified Senior Crime Scene Analyst (CSCSA)

In addition, the following change was made in the timetable for examinations:  An applicant has 90 days to take the examination after being approved for testing.  In the past there was a rather indeterminate amount of time during which the applicant was expected to take the test.  This policy sets 90 days as the maximum time allowed within which to take the test after being approved for testing.  

These changes are effective immediately.

National Institute of Justice (NIJ) Fingerprint Research Grant Awards

NIJ recently announced the awarding of several projects involving fingerprint research.  As you know, there were a number of IAI members involved in developing the specifications for the solicitation that led to these research proposals and also in evaluating the subsequent submissions.  The awards can be viewed by following the link listed below.

The data and information generated by these projects will undoubtedly further enhance the credibility of fingerprint identification and we look forward to the results:


NIJ’s FY 05 Friction Ridge Research Development Projects


1)   Title:          Quantitative Assessment of the Individuality of Friction Ridge Patterns

      Grantee:    Research Foundation of SUNY        

      Amount:    $596,478.00

      Abstract:   The research proposes to increase understanding of the discriminative power of friction ridge patterns. Two tasks will be addressed: (i) assess existing statistical models of friction ridge             individuality and propose new models for error rates, probability of match /exclusion and strength of evidence, e.g., the strength of a match can be expressed using newer statistical techniques developed in the allied forensic disciplines of DNA matching and speaker verification, and (ii) study the issue of quantity and quality of friction ridge data that need to be present for matching, e.g., how does the number and combinations of minutiae present

                        affect individualization? In the first task different models of individuality and their assumptions will be compared, e.g., traditional models which lead to an assertion that the probability of duplication is a small x% and new probabilistic models based on distributions of similarity values conditioned on belonging to the same or different individual. The quantity-quality study will parameterize error rates on the basis of minutiae available and their combinations. Methods to be employed will be software-based and will include both existing algorithms for minutiae extraction/matching as well as newer algorithms for extracting

                        fingerprint characteristics. Examples of the latter are: compound minutiae consisting of minutiae combinations, counting the numbers and combinations of minutiae that occur, extracting features not automatically extracted at present, etc. Resources to conduct empirical studies of friction ridge prints will include a recently constructed research database of friction ridge patterns collected from a population of twins– this database, prepared by latent print examiners contains ten prints, palm-prints, and latent prints, will also help determine relative similarity between identical twins and the general population. Deliverables will include software to quantify the strength of evidence and software for extracting and counting friction ridge characteristics. The work will be conducted with the guidance of latent print examiners at federal, state and local levels.


2)   Title:          Analysis of Level III Characteristics at High Resolutions

      Grantee:    International Biometric Group, LLC 

      Amount:    $461,495.00 (Phase 1)

      Abstract:   International Biometric Group (IBG), Aprilis Inc., and the Crime Scene Services Section of the Massachusetts State Police (MSP-CSSS) propose a research project that evaluates (1) the frequency and permanence of Level III characteristics and (2) tools that enable capture, processing, and statistical evaluation of these characteristics' quality and strength. The Project evaluates card-based and live-scanned fingerprint data at resolutions from 500dpi to 4000dpi, assessing the degree to which increased resolution enhances the utility of Level III characteristics. Through comparison of Level III characteristics derived from genuine and impostor populations, the Project generates data that describes the discriminating power of Level III characteristics. The Project further compares Level III matching results with Level II results to assess multimodal correlation and relative matching power. Expanding on existing research techniques – and utilizing Aprilis capture hardware and matching software – evaluation design encompasses the following:


1.         Digitization of friction ridge data from several thousand tenprint     cards, selected as paired records with temporal variation.

2.         Processing and comparison of card-based fingerprints for location             and segmentation of Level III characteristics, generating data on             friction ridge permanence.

3.         Collection, conversions, and digitization of multiple fingerprint             impressions at 500dpi, 1000dpi, 2000dpi, and 4000dpi from a             population of approximately 1000 test subjects (comprising             approximately 150,000 samples).

4.         Classification and regional sampling of friction ridge data to             establish robustness within minimal ridge areas.

5.         Cross-comparative processing of live-scan samples, generating             data on ridge distinctiveness.

6.         Analysis of Level III characteristic performance in conjunction             with and relative to Level II characteristics.

7.         Optimization of Aprilis software tools.


                        Study of Level III characteristics is timely as performance requirements for civil biometric systems (e.g. national ID, border management) are approaching the limits of Level II algorithms.  The justice community has a vested interest in the continued collection of fingerprints for Civil Identification applications; as such databases have utility in law enforcement scenarios.  This Project will help to quantify the discriminating power of Level III friction ridge data, support technology implementation decisions, and improve tools available for use in friction ridge applications.


3)   Title:          Adding Human Expertise to the Quantitative Analysis of Fingerprints

      Grantee:    Indiana University     

      Amount:    $431,255.00

      Abstract:   Quantitative approaches to fingerprint identification rely on different approaches derived from minutiae detection, orientation computations and other sources of  information. These approaches extract out relevant features that can be matched across prints. We propose toimprove upon these approaches by incorporating data derived from expert latent print examiners.  We have developed a software tool that provides a very rich description of the expert's matching process, and we extract from this data elements of expertise that can be incorporated into quantitative analyses of fingerprints. We demonstrate how this data can be used to identify regions of interest using variations on support vector machines, how we can use the temporal information to identify the nature of the information used by experts, and how data reduction techniques reveal the fundamental features used by experts, which may be more than just minutiae. Finally, we integrate across different levels of a print to use the 'gist' or category of a print to improve the feature extraction of parts of the print. Our particular quantitative methods take advantage of our expert data, but the data derived from experts could be used to improve many different quantitative approaches, and we will make our data available to other researchers for use in their statistical models.


4)   Title:          Latent-Print Detection by Macro-Raman Imaging

      Grantee:    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Through and Interagency Agreement                                with DOE)     

      Amount:    $299,000.00 (Phase 1)

      Abstract:   Fingerprints deposited on many surfaces often go undetected once latent prints age over a few hours, especially when exposed to UV radiation. The ability to develop latent fingerprints is often influenced by many factors including print-type (clean/eccrine through oily/sebaceous), humidity, light, surface matrix, etc. Recent findings on the fundamental chemistry of superglue fuming, a prominent method for developing prints on non-porous surfaces, revealed methods capable of enhancing the ability of develop latent fingerprints that would otherwise go undetected. In many cases, treatment of the print with vapor from 75% acetic acid dramatically enhanced development by superglue fuming. However, this enhancement was not effective on fingerprints exposed to UV radiation from sun or fluorescent lighting, especially on surfaces containing iron (III). Such surfaces would include firearms, knives, ammunition, automobiles, etc. In addition, the enhancement method is complex and not easily amenable to field applications. Thus, a real need exists to efficiently and effectively detect latent fingerprints on all surfaces regardless of the print type or environmental exposure factors. To accomplish this goal, further study is needed to better characterize constituents and associated degradation products originating from fingerprint secretions deposited on a range of matrices. Through an understanding of time-related changes in fingerprint components, discrimination between fingerprint constituents and the deposition surface is expected to facilitate the development of enhanced friction ridge visualization methods. Simplistic methods that increase the detection sensitivity for macro-Raman Imaging will be targeted. With this type of discriminatory power, an increase in the average print area and quality, as well as in the differentiation between fresh and aged prints, are expected.


                        In order to exploit the anticipated findings, researchers from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are teaming with experts in chemical imaging – ChemImage, Corp.  Currently, ChemImage is developing a Raman-based imaging system under a TSWG initiative.  The goal this proposal is to gain a better understanding of fingerprint and fingerprint degradation chemistry, employ methods to enhance Raman-based latent-print visualization, and utilize the enhancement methods to modify the ChemImage system for field applications. Such a system would enhance the efficiency and quality of latent detection in cases involving WMD events (non-contact print detection), assault, murder, etc.


                        The tasks necessary to achieve the stated goal are complex and require a unique combination of specialists who understand fingerprint decomposition, chemical enhancement, chemical imaging, and imaging enhancement. ORNL proposes to team with ChemImage to develop a macro-Raman chemical imaging methodology to accomplish the stated objective.


5)   Title:          Quantifying the Dermatoglyphic Growth Patterns in Children through                          Adolescence

      Grantee:    Ultra Scan Corporation

      Amount:    $126,601.00

      Abstarct:   Ultra-Scan Corporation, a pioneer in the use of ultrasound for livescan fingerprint

                        imaging with over 15 years experience in researching, commercializing, integrating, and deploying fingerprint identification systems, proposes to contribute to the scientific body of friction ridge structure knowledge. To date, this body of knowledge does not provide scientific understanding regarding the growth pattern of fingerprints to enable the positive identification of children over a period of several years.


                        Ultra-Scan will develop a predictive model that is a 2-way mapping (from younger to older, and older to younger) of the minutiae location, both spatial and orientation, of two sets of fingerprints captured at different points in time. The predictive model will be based on a control group of several hundred children ranging from age 2 to 18, repeatedly imaging their fingerprint ridge structure over the course of five years.


                        The establishment of a 2-way fingerprint predictive growth model will assist latent examiners in the identification of young children, improve the accuracy of automated latent search engines, and expand the scientific body of knowledge regarding fingerprint patterns. Ultra-Scan will disseminate the resulting data analysis to the broader forensic

                        science community in addition to the NIJ, through peer review publications and technical presentations. Ultra-Scan will leverage expertise and existing equipment to deliver statistically significant findings at minimal cost.


6)   Title:          Improving Methods for Fingerprint Development on Hand-Guns

      Grantee:    Israeli National Police (Through an Interagency Agreement with TSWG)

      Amount:    $75,000.00

      Abstract:   This project will involve two stages of research.  In the first stage, the factors that affect the life, durability, and recovery of fingerprints on hand-guns will be studied.  After gaining a better understanding of what happens to the fingerprints, the second stage will attempt to develop more successful methods for fingerprint development on hand-guns.


                        The major portion of this second stage will involve research into optimization of the cyanoacrylate method. Today, this is the method of choice for processing hand-guns and throughout the years, this method has been optimized in regards to development conditions and methods.  However, the cyanoacrylate used was always either ethyl or methyl.  Today, there are seven or eight types of cyanoacrylates available (butyl, octyl, etc.).  Little research has been done into choosing and using the best cyanoacrylate type for the type of surface being processed.  Just as different types of cyanoacrylate have to be adapted to the material being glued, the same may hold true for fingerprint processing.


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Until next Monday morning, don't work too hard or too little.

Have a GREAT week!